Digital Systems, Optimisation and Integration

Smart Transient Testing – Optimised Attribute Trade-off to support Future Requirements

Industry Partner: Ford EPS R&A
Guest: Harald Stoffels
Year: 2020
Ford logo

Ever rising requirements on fuel economy and emissions can often result in trade-offs with other vehicle attributes.​

In parallel, development and product cycles shorten, and modular approaches for propulsion systems demand the application of a powertrain in a variety of vehicles with different characteristics and attribute target sets. ​

Consequently, the task to enforce design decisions on powertrains and their control system are increasingly moving to an early phase in the development process, where often vehicle prototypes are not available.​

A potential solution is to operate the powertrain or its subsystems on a full transient testbed within a virtual environment, while subjecting the overall system to a microscopic traffic simulation. Based on an example of a C-car class vehicle we will show an application case based on actual boundary conditions.

Chemical Energy Converters

Overview of the exhaust aftertreatment systems solutions in the modern automotive industry: functioning principles and applications.

Industry Partner: CMT Motores Termicos, Valencia
Guest: Barbara Diesel Costa
Year: 2020

Engine exhaust aftertreatment systems are devices capable of reducing harmful exhaust emissions from internal combustion engine through chemical and physical processes. This seminar will present the most common after treatment systems being applied nowadays on both diesel and gasoline cars besides of approaching their functioning principles.

Chemical Energy Converters

Overview of engine and aftertreatment response impacted by extreme altitude and ambient temperature conditions and optimisation techniques

Industry Partner: CMT Motores Termicos, Valencia
Guest: Barbara Diesel Costa
Year: 2020

Altitude affects not only engine performance and engine raw emissions, but also the aftertreatment systems functioning as their boundary conditions change. This presentation encompasses the understanding of the effects on aftertreatment operation when working in altitude conditions as well as the identification of actives and passive strategies that can be applied to optimize their operation when submitted to these adverse circumstances.

Application of Mathematics

Energy storage in RTG cranes

Industry Partner: University of Reading
Guest: William Holderbaum
Year: 2021

In low voltage networks, Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) play a significant role in increasing energy cost savings, peak reduction and energy efficiency whilst reinforcing the electrical network infrastructure. This talk will give an outline in optimal management system based on a different control strategies (Optimal Control and Model Predictive control) for the control of an ESS equipped with a network of electrified Rubber Tyre Gantry (RTG) cranes. The stochastic management system aims to improve the reliability and economic performance, for given ESS parameters, of a single crane or a network of cranes by taking into account the uncertainty in the RTGs electrical demand. A specific case study is presented using real operational data of the RTGs network in the Port of Felixstowe, UK, and the results of the stochastic control system is compared to a standard set-point controller. The results of the proposed control strategies indicate that the stochastic management system successfully increases the electric energy cost savings, the peak demand reductions and successfully outperforms a comparable set-point controller.

Chemical Energy Converters

Schrӧdinger’s Car: the plug-in hybrid conundrum

Industry Partner: Emissions Analytics
Guest: Nick Molden
Year: 2021
  • Are plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) a rapid and practical route to carbon dioxide reduction, or an uncontrollable and expensive diversion from other more promising types of powertrain?
  • Many vehicles are being launched with CO2 emissions below 49g/km on the WLTP cycle, to gain CO2 supercredits and tax advantages
  • What does independent real-world testing tell us happens in practice?
  • How dependent on driver behaviour are the CO2 benefits?
  • Are the advantages of PHEVS being correcting represented in manufacturer marketing?
  • Are PHEVs, full hybrids or BEVs the most efficient use of scarce battery resource?
  • How technology-neutral AIR Index ratings can help demystify the situation for policy makers and car buyers.
Chemical Energy Converters

On road real time measurement of emissions and pollution

Industry Partner: CAMBUSTION
Guest: Mark Peckham
Year: 2021
Cambustion logo

Modern vehicles tend to produce most of their emissions during transient operation ( e.g. accelerations, cold starts etc) and in this lecture, data will presented which illustrate the significant “spikes” of emissions and discusses the underlying causes. The data, when combined with GPS, engine data and dashcam footage, explains not only the reasons behind the emissions but also the air quality impact on the local environment e.g. downwind of speed bumps). Recent roadside, “chase” studies and cabin air vent results further helps to illustrate the importance of this topic at a time when the custodians of urban environments rush to implement clean air zones.

Chemical Energy Converters

The role of combustion engines in the year 2031

Industry Partner: Ford
Guest: Carsten Weber
Year: 2021
Ford logo

In principle the combustion engine is a highly sophisticated machine that transfers chemical into mechanical energy following the natural laws of science. At present, there is enormous pressure on this machine with regard to cleanliness and environmental friendliness. This discussion often neglects the fact that efficiency and emissions are related to the chemical properties of the used energy carrier and are often inversely proportional to each other.

The foreseeable future of automotive propulsion systems will be dominated by hybrid technology that is making best use of electrification and conventional powertrain elements including combustion engine.

We will see an increase of electrified vehicles tailored to specific customer demands and legal requirements. The majority of the next generation propulsion systems will continue to have an internal combustion engine as an integral part to ensure the optimum regarding cost, range, performance and cleanliness

Transport Policy & Economics

Transport and Climate Change

Industry Partner: Trinity College Dublin
Guest: Brian Caulfield
Year: 2021

This talk will examine the relationships between transportation and climate change, focusing upon the pathways to reducing our emissions and over reliance on the private car. Within the next decade, the decade of action, our current mobility systems will need to transform in ways in which have never been seen before. Our usage of private vehicles, aviation and freight movements will all need to change. this talk will examine the pathways to achieve this change discussing the changes required in fuels, technologies and human behavior. The talk will draw on recent work conducted for the climate change Advisory Council in Ireland on pathways to zero emissions from transport.

Low Carbon Fuels

A Perspective on Road Transport Fuels through the Energy Transition

Industry Partner: Shell
Guest: Rod Williams
Year: 2021
Shell logo

All industries which consume non-renewable energy will be affected by changes designed to combat climate change in the coming decades. Amongst these, major changes will be effected in all aspects of the road transport sector, including fuels. This session will focus on how road transport fuels could change to enable the decarbonisation of road transport. The scene will be set with an outline of drivers for change, policy enablers, their deployment and the status quo. Light and heavy-duty scenarios to 2050 will be discussed along with some of the variables which will influence the outcomes. An overview of future fuel options will be given and some context of Shell’s activities to contribute to fuel decarbonisation will be outlined.

Gas Purification

Soot removal in Diesel Vehicles

Industry Partner: University of Alicante, Spain
Guest: Agustin Bueno-Lopez
Year: 2021

This seminar focused on the control of soot emissions in vehicles. The chemical nature of soot will be presented together with the removal technologies. Special attention will be paid to Diesel Particulate Filters and to the catalytic regeneration, discerning between noble metal catalysts and noble-metal-free alternative options. 

Digital Systems, Optimisation and Integration

A Sustainable World – How the Automotive Sector Can Play a Role

Industry Partner: AVL
Guest: Bernadette Longridge
Year: 2021
AVL logo

The rate of change within the automotive industry has accelerated beyond what most stakeholders could have imagined even 2, 3 or 4 years ago. The accelerated introduction of electrified powertrains, has brought to the fore the question of how the fuel or power to propel  the vehicles is generated and the original source from which it comes. This presentation explores some of the challenges the automotive world must face, if it is to play a role in being part of the solution for a sustainable future.

Low Carbon Fuels

The next generation low carbon liquid fuels for a NetZero future

Industry Partner: Shell
Guest: Tushar Bera
Year: 2021
Shell logo

Despite significant advances in energy efficiency, demand will inevitably increase as growing populations need more energy to support a decent quality of life. This will require a transition of the energy system from one that relies primarily on fossil fuels to one that increasingly uses sustainable sources of energy to achieve net-zero emissions. Regardless the pathways to get there, the structure of future energy system is becoming clear, it involves deep electrification, primarily renewable power, alongside increasingly low carbon, energy dense liquid and gaseous fuels. This session will focus on why low carbon fuels are becoming an integral part of a net zero future. An overview of future fuel options including Shell activities in developing next generation transport fuels will also be discussed

Low Carbon Fuels

Development of an engine test to rate the EGR deposit formation propensity of fuels in light-duty diesel engines

Industry Partner: Shell
Guest: Rod Williams
Year: 2021
Shell logo

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is employed in diesel engines to reduce engine-out NOx.  Carbon-containing deposits form in the EGR systems of modern diesel engines as the particulate matter, hydrocarbons and other entrained species deposit from the exhaust gas flow as it cools and can lead to a number of problems including emissions and fuel consumption deterioration, poor performance and drivability, as well as breakdowns.  An engine test method has been developed to enable the impact of fuel on deposits in the high-pressure EGR system to be studied.  In the test method a 4-cylinder light-duty diesel engine of 1.6L displacement runs at conditions conducive to EGR deposit formation over 24 hours and the impact of fuels on deposit formation is determined through weighing of the EGR system components before and after the test.  Initial tests comparing a B7 representative of European EN590 diesel fuel and a Fischer-Tropsch Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) gasoil fuel showed that 72% less deposit formed with GTL than with B7

Transport Policy & Economics

Road Crashes: a residual problem?

Industry Partner: International Transport Forum
Guest: Jack Short
Year: 2021

Since the start of 2020 the COVID pandemic has so dominated attention that analysis of almost all other public policy subjects has ceased.  For transport, the pandemic has had huge impacts including massive reductions in  traffic and, happily, reductions in crashes and fatalities. But despite these short term gains, road  safety remains a central concern in transport policy. Each year over 1 million people die on roads  around the world and traffic remains a greater killer of young men than COVID.  While long run progress in reducing traffic fatalities has been made in many countries, this progress has recently stalled in several of them. 

This guest lecture will describe how the toll from road collisions has changed and will look at the impact of COVID on the trends. It will examine how safety policy has evolved and will discuss the challenges in moving towards a road system free of deaths and injury. Examples and case studies from several Countries will illustrate the developments and challenges. 

Transport, Behaviour and Society

Fair, Green, Creative, Connected - a Vision for future mobility?

Industry Partner: City Global Futures
Guest: Stephen Hilton
Year: 2021

What will our cities look, feel and sound like in 10, 20, 50 years’ time? Where will we live, how will we connect with each other, what sort of jobs will we do?

Stephen Hilton has been helping city leaders to tackle these questions for many years, first as Director of Futures at Bristol City Council and more recently as the founder of City Global Futures (CGF).  This talk will focus on Stephen’s (virtual) work between August 2020 and February 2021 with Bath and North East Somerset B&NES) council and local stakeholders.  He helped them to develop a shared 2030 vision to renew the region’s future direction following disruption caused by the global pandemic and to respond to the council’s declared climate and ecological emergencies. The vision was built around four stories of the future which helped people to think about what they might need to do differently to achieve a net zero carbon 2030.

Chemical Energy Converters

From Gas Guzzler to Planet Pleaser

Industry Partner: Lunaz Design
Guest: Jon Hilton
Year: 2021

At Lunaz Design they are taking some of the most beautiful classic cars in history and making them fit for the 21st century by completing a full restoration, modernising key systems and fitting battery electric powertrains. The award-winning cars display fantastic attention to detail and retail for between £245,000 and £1M each.

In this lecture Jon will explain the philosophy behind the creation of the Lunaz Group of companies and describe in detail the process by which vehicles are remanufactured back to better than new standard. He will cover the special challenges imposed by the fitment of a battery electric powertrain and compare the environmental performance of the Lunaz products to brand new electric vehicles.

Low Carbon Fuels

Hydrogen as an energy carrier for heavy duty transport

Industry Partner: Shell
Guest: Karsten Wilbrand
Year: 2022
Shell logo

In order to meet its future renewable energy demand and become net-zero towards 2050, Europe is expected to import significant amounts of renewable energy in molecular form, e.g. as hydrogen. Also, seasonal renewable energy storage in form of hydrogen will be needed.

While direct use of electricity in battery-electric trucks is preferred due to the overall efficiency from local renewable production, it may look different when hydrogen will be imported as renewable energy carrier and for seasonal storage reasons. A comparison of long-haul trucks running on batteries vs. hydrogen will be presented considering an energy systems perspective.

Transport, Behaviour and Society

How AV Shuttles on dedicated space might form part of a net zero transport strategy for new development and existing places

Industry Partner: PJA Transport Planning, Engineering and Placemaking
Guest: Jon Tricker
Year: 2022

In response to the urgent needs of climate change, new thinking for the planning of net zero  transport and placemaking solutions in new development and in existing places is required.  These approaches require an understanding of development and spatial planning with strategies for minimising and eliminating operational CO2e emissions from local transport.  AV Shuttles initially operating on dedicated space offering a new flexible form of public transport are likely to form part of a future transport solution for cities, towns and villages. 

Transport, Behaviour and Society

IAM RoadSmart’s Safety Culture Report – a look at the attitudes and behaviour of drivers

Industry Partner: IAM RoadSmart
Guest: Rebecca Ashton, Neil Greig
Year: 2022

IAM RoadSmart Safety Culture’s aim is to study UK motorists’ driving safety attitudes and behaviour.  This survey was first carried out in 2015 and repeated every year since allowing IAM RoadSmart to track any changes in attitudes and behaviour, drivers are asked a range of questions including their perceived threats to personal safety.

Propulsion Electrification

Battery state of health diagnostics – From the lab to the real world

Industry Partner: Loughborough University
Guest: Ashley Fly
Year: 2022

All lithium-ion batteries slowly degrade with time and use. Understanding how this degradation occurs and how to mitigate it is essential in increasing the lifetime of battery powered devices like electric vehicles. The state of health (SoH) of a lithium-ion battery is usually estimated from measuring the voltage, current and/or temperature of a battery subjected to a range of diagnostic tests. This talk will cover the different methods of battery SoH diagnostics, how they work and how SoH is commonly interpreted in controlled lab-based settings. However, the real world is not a lab! Many external factors such as temperature, charging duration, and user behaviour will influence the ability to estimate a batteries SoH and make accurate lifetime predictions. The influence of these external factors on the accuracy of SoH diagnostics will be explored with applications linking to electric vehicles. The talk will also highlight the importance of considering how lab research is applied in the field.

Transport Policy & Economics

Air Transport Liberalization: the case of Ireland

Industry Partner: Trinity College Dublin
Guest: Sean Barrett
Year: 2022

Sean Barrett is the author of “Deregulation and the Airline Business in Europe” and was a Member of the Senate (Upper House) of the Parliament of Ireland from 2011-2016, as well as a member of the National Economic and Social Council; Culleton Review of Industrial Policy; Brennan Review of Health Policy; and as a director of the Irish Tourist Board. Sean will be talking about the liberalisation of the air transport in Ireland in 1985 with updates to the present day. Ireland played a leading role in the liberalization of European aviation and experienced significant economic benefits due to increased passenger numbers, lower fares, and increased staff productivity. In 2019 two of Sean Barrett's former students were chief executives of airlines which carried 245 million passengers, Michael O'Leary at Ryanair with 149m passengers and Peter Bellew at easyjet with 96m passengers.

Chemical Energy Converters

Powering a Green Future: From Aspiration to Reality

Industry Partner: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | KAUST
Guest: Bassam Dally
Year: 2022

In this seminar, Prof. Dally discusses the widening gap between the aspirational targets of carbon neutrality by 2050, and reality on the ground. He looks at current impediments and constraints, and proposes measures to overcome them. In particular, he discusses the concept of integrated solutions, decarbonizing industry sectors and  some of the cost-effective decarbonization technologies he has developed.

Transport, Behaviour and Society

Transport For Humans: Are we nearly there yet?

Industry Partner: Department for Transport
Guest: Pete Dyson
Year: 2022

How do people want and need to travel? Which trips are really valuable? How are habits changing? These questions need answers because climate change, the coronavirus pandemic and changing work–life priorities have shaken up long-held assumptions. Hope for a brighter future lies in adapting transport to more human wants and needs. The discipline of behavioural science therefore has the potential to significantly improve the design of roads, railways, planes and pavements – as well as the ways in which we use them – but only when we embrace the messier reality of how people travel.

Pete will present insights from a new book co-authored with Rory Sutherland, published on November 18th 2021. Expect talk of electric cars, planes, tubes, maps, ticket machines, e-bikes, hybrid working and much more.

He welcomes a discussion about how social and behavioural scientists can put their best foot forward, to play an even more pivotal role in shaping the transport systems we all use.

Propulsion Electrification

Thermal Energy Management – Challenges & opportunities of electrification

Industry Partner: Jaguar Land Rover
Guest: Nilabza Dutta
Year: 2022

Cost of heating & cooling an automotive cabin is very expensive for a Battery Electric Vehicle’s efficiency. Plus the current battery and electric drive units technologies have very limited window of operating temperature range for optimal energy efficiency & vehicle performance. Thermal energy management is key to ensuring that the range of an electric car is delivered robustly across all ambient conditions without compromising the customer experience of driving an electric car. In this lecture we will go through the challenges and opportunities of thermal energy management those electric vehicles present.

Digital Systems, Optimisation and Integration

Intelligent Cognitive Agents: codifying human-machine knowledge as a emergent cyber-social phenomenon

Industry Partner: Boeing
Guest: Michael Richey
Year: 2022

The National Academies report, Information Technology and the U.S. Workforce (2017), stated that over the coming 10 to 20 years, technology will affect almost every occupation resulting in a high percentage of workers that need re-skilling. Machine learning and artificial intelligence threaten to not only eliminate a larger number of jobs than will be re-created through innovation (Brynjolfsson, Mitchell, & Rock, 2018; Manyika et al., 2017; Levy, 2017), but that entire classes of professions will fall prey to machine learning. Changes in the skills and knowledge necessary for successful digital life are now impacting organization cultural and technical systems. This is not unanticipated, as researchers have long described the impending change: “The emergence of our contemporary networked society has brought disruptive changes, reshaping the nature of relationships and interactions and creating responsive, collaborative, and highly engaged culture” (Castells, 2000; Goodyear, 2014; Jones, 2015). These changes require rapid innovation from companies due to the need for a highly-educated “adaptive” workforce. This presents new opportunities for companies and universities to partner in research in order to measure the flow-quality of knowledge across sociotechnical networks. In a digital economy, knowledge creation (human and machine), communication and coordination largely occurs within dynamic knowledge networks (Pezeshki,2019)

In this presentation, we will cover learner usage pattern extracted from clickstream data within learner centered networks. Clickstream data is defined as a proxy for user behavior that not only records that a click was made by the user on an electronic object, but also captures the associated metadata, such as the system time when the click was made, the object on which the click event occurred, the dwell time on the clicked entity, and learner trajectory, NPL discussions and other navigational details. Clickstreams not only embody behavior, they are also a signal – a manifestation of learner intent. (Madhavan & Richey,2016).

© Copyright 2021 AAPS CDT, Centre for Doctoral Training in Advanced Automotive Propulsion Systems at the University of Bath